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動詞語态
2003-08-01 17:18佚名   (閱讀次數:)
語态是動詞的一種形式,它用來表示句中主語同謂語動詞之間的關系。 英語有兩種語态, 主動語态和被動語态, 主動語态表示主語是謂語動詞動作的執行者,被動語态表示主語是謂語動詞動作的承受者。例如: I have repaired the radio. 我修好了收音機。 The radio has been repaired. 收音機被修好了。 The students cleaned the classroom. 學生們打掃了教室。 The classroom was cleaned by the students. 教室被學生們打掃了。 被動語态的構成: be + 過去分詞 A building was damaged by the storm. 暴風雨毀壞了一座建築物。 Our plate was made in China. 我們的盤子是中國生産的。 My bike was stolen. 我的自行車被盜了。 常用的被動語态的時态變化如下,以 ask 為例: 一般進行完成 現在I am asked, I am being asked, I have been asked 過去I was asked,I was being asked,I had been asked 将來I shall be asked, I shall have been asked 過去将來I shall be asked 被動語态的疑問句是把助動詞提前到句首。 Has your TV set been repaired? 你的電視機修了嗎? Was the kite broken? 風筝破了嗎? Has the work been done? 工作結束了嗎? 被動語态的否定式是在助動詞後面加 not. The letter has not been sent out. 信還沒有發出去。 The little boy has not been found out. 小孩還沒有找到。 The cap has not been mended yet. 帽子還沒有補好。 Their money has not been sent to them. 他們的錢還沒有送到他們手中。 被動語态的用法: 被動語态表示一種主語和謂語之間的關系,當主語是動作的承受者時, 就需要用到被動語态,漢語中所說的,“汽車被撞壞了”“鋼筆被修好了” 等句子就是一種被動語态的句子,在漢語中常用“被”“由”等詞來表示這種被動語态。在英語中則用動詞的被動語态形式來表示。被動語态中還可用 by 短語加在句後表示被動語态中動作的發出者。也就是謂語動詞動作的邏輯上的主語,被動語态常用在下列情況。 1) 不知道誰是謂語動詞動作的執行者時,或者沒有必要說出誰是執行者時。 The glass was broken last night. 玻璃昨天被打破了。 His bike has been stolen. 他的自行車被偷了。 He was asked to go there once more. 他被要求再去那兒一次。 The bag was put into the box. 袋子放在了箱子裡。 2) 為了強調或突出動作的承受者時。 The plan has been sent to the headmaster. 計劃已經送給校長了。 Kilinton was elected the President of U.S.A. 克林頓被選為美國總統。 Five people were hurt in the explosion. 五個人在這次爆炸中受傷。 A new building was set up in a short time. 新大樓短期就建成了。 3) 被動語态也可以說出動作的執行者,構成如下: 動作承受者 + be + 過去分詞 + by + 動作執行者。 The picture was praised by everybody. 照片得到了大家的好評。 The classroom was cleaned by us. 教室被我們打掃過。 The bridge was built by workers from Shanxi. 這座橋是山西的工人建的。 The little boy was found by the police. 小孩被警察找到了。 有關被動語态的幾個問題: 1) "be + 過去分詞" 并非都是被動語态,系動詞 be, feel, seem,look,等詞後面的過去分詞已轉化為形容詞,作表語用,表示某種狀态。 I'm interested in mathematics. 我對數學感興趣。 He seems unsatisfied with his work. 他看起來對他的工作不滿意。 We are determined to catch up with the developed countries. 我們決心要趕上發達國家。 The song is called "Don't forget me". 歌曲的名字叫“勿忘我”。 某些動詞用主動語态來表示被動含義。 The food tastes good. 食物很香。 It smells strange. 這有怪味。 The stone feels very cold. 石頭摸起來很冷。 The woman's clothes sell well. 女裝賣的快。 3) 一般情況下,及物動詞才能構成被動語态,但有些不及物動詞組成短語後,也可構成被動語态。 He was looked down upon because of his egoism. 他因自私而受人冷落。 The children were taken good care of in the the orphanage. 孩子們在孤兒院受到了良好的照顧。
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